The Earth, the largest of the inner planets of the Solar System and the third closest planet to the Sun, is the sole home of human life in the entire Solar System and is the fifth largest planet. It has an equatorial diameter of 12,756 km and a polar diameter of 12,714 km. The Earth is at a distance of 149,597,900 km from the Sun and orbits round the Sun at a speed of 107,220 km per hour, making one revolution in 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 45.51 seconds. It completes one rotation on its axis every 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4.091 seconds.
The Earth is a unique planet. It is a bit pear-shaped rather than a true sphere. The Earth is considered a solid, rigid mass with a dense core of magnetic, probably metallic material. It is the only planet containing ample water and air around it. The temperature on the Earth is also suitable for human life.
Mass of Earth : 5.9736 x 1024 kg
Density of Earth: 5.517 times that of water.
Volume of Earth : 1,083,208,840,000 cubic km.
Equatorial Circumference :
40,075.03 km.
Polar or Meridianal Circumference:
40,007.89 km.
Equatorial Diameter : 12,756 km.
Polar Diameter : 12,714 km.
Land and Sea Surface: The estimated total surface area of the Earth is 510,066,100 sq km, of which the sea or hydrosphere covers five-sevenths or, more accurately, 70.92% and the land or lithosphere two-sevenths or 29.08 %. The mean depth of the hydrosphere is 3,554 metres.
Earth’s Axis is an imaginary line which mns right across and passes through the centre of the Earth. The Earth spins round its axis which always remains inclined at an angle of 66V20 to the plane of the Earth’s orbit.
Rotation is the spinning of the Earth on its axis. The Earth rotates from west

to east and takes 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4.091 seconds to complete one rotation.
The velocity of the Earth’s rotation varies between nearly 1690 km per hour at equator, 845 km per hour at 60° N and S and zero at the poles. At the Equator, there is a 12-hour day and a 12-hour night. North of 66V20 N, there is continuous daylight; south of 66 V20 S there is continuous night. Days become longer with increasing latitude north, shorter with increasing latitude south.
Revolution is the movement of the Earth around the Sun simultaneously with its rotation. It takes 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 45.51 seconds for it to complete one revolution.
Orbit is the elliptical path of the Earth’s revolution round the Sun.
Perihelion is closest to the Sun. The Earth reaches its perihelion on January 3 approximately when it is 147.3 million kilometres from die Sun.
Aphelion is the point in the Earth’s or other planet’s orbit which is farthest from the Sun. The Earth reaches its aphelion on July 4 when it is nearly 152 million kilometres away from the Sun.
Leap Year is the year in which the month of February has 29 days. Leap year occurs once in four years. The Earth actually takes 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 45.51 seconds to complete one revolution round the Sun. For the sake of convenience, the year is rounded off as 365 days. The remaining one-fourth of the day has to be accounted for, since a year represents the time taken by the Earth to complete one revolution round the Sun. Therefore, once in four years one day is added to the year in the month of February, thus, making it a leap year except centesimal years not divisible by 400. For instance, between 2000 and 2400, 2000 and 2400 are leap years but 2100, 2200 and2300are not leap years being indivisible by 400.
Solstice is the date on which the Sun shines vertically over a tropic when the days and nights are the longest and the shortest. On June 22, the Sun shines vertically on the Tropic of Cancer and this
date is termed as summer solstice for northern hemisphere and winter solstice for the southern hemisphere. Similarly, on December 22, the Sun shines vertically on the Tropic of Capricorn. Hence, this date is summer solstice for the southern hemisphere and winter solstice for the northern hemisphere. Likewise, the longest and the shortest days in the northern hemisphere are June 22 and December 22 and vice versa, i.e. Dec. 22 and June 22, the longest and the shortest days in the southern hemisphere.
Equinox means two days during the year, March 21 and September 23, when day and night are almost equal throughout the world because the Sun shines vertically on the Equator. March 21 is called vernd equinox and September 23 is called autumnal equinox.
The- Moon is the only natural satellite of the Earth. It is over one quarter size of the Earth with diameter of 3,476 km. It is also the nearest neighbour of the Earth at a mean distance of 384,400 km centre to centre, 376,284 km surface to surface. Its average orbital speed is 3,680 km per hour. The Earth is being orbited by the Moon. The period of rotation of the Moon is equal to its period of revolution around the Earth. This period is 27 days, 7 hours, 43 minutes and 11.47 seconds. Over 59 percent of the Moon’s surface is direcdy visible from the Earth. Six American spacecraft from 1969 to 1972 brought 12 astronauts to walk on the surface of the Moon.
Equator represents jhe imaginary line passing round the Earth midway between the north and south poles. It, thus, divides the Earth into two equal halves (the Northern and Southern hemispheres).
Meridians represent the imaginary lines drawn out on the global map, from pole to pole and perpendicular to the Equator.
Prime Meridian is the 0° meridian which passes through Greenwich, a place near London. It is also known as the Greenwich Meridian.
Longitudes are the equidistant lines drawn east and west of die Greenwich Meridian. They denote angular distances of a place due east or west of the Greenwich Meridian. They converge at the two poles.
Latitudes are parallel lines drawn north and south of the Equator. They indicate angular distance of a place in relation to the Equator.
Tropics are literally tumingpoints. They refer to those parallels where the Sun is imagined to halt its movement and turn about northward or southward as the case
may be. The 23V20 north parallel is, thus, termed as the Tropic of Cancer and the 23’/20 south parallel as the Tropic of Capricorn.
Great Circles are imaginary circles whose plane passing through the centre of the Earth bisects it into two equal halves. For example, equator is a great circle. Parts of opposite meridian also constitute great circles. The number of great circles which can be drawn on a sphere is limidess. They are used to determine shortest distance between any two points on the surface of the Earth, cutting down the travelling costs by aircraft and ships.
Small Circles are similar to the great circles. However, they differ from great circles in the sense that their plane does not pass through the Earth’s centre. All the parallels of latitude north and south of the Equator make small circles.
Contour Lines join places of equal height above sea level on a map.
Map Projection is the method by which the curved surface of the Earth is depicted on a flat surface of plane. In other words, it represents the projection of curved lines of latitude and longitude on a global map.
Zenithical Projection is adopted to construct equal area or equidistant maps. Equal area projection is frequently shown as a polar projection. Here, concentric parallels are drawn with the pole at the centre and with meridians as straight lines converging on the pole.
Conical Projection represents a part of the globe, projected upon a tangent cone, which in effect is opened up and laid flat.
Cylindrical Projection represents the globe as projected upon a surrounding cylinder, which, in effect, is opened up and laid out. Here, the lines of latitude and longitude are drawn as straight lines intersecting at right angles.
Mercator Projection represents the map of global area in a cylindrical type of projection, where the lines oflatitude and longitude are drawn as straight lines intersecting at right angles instead of the curved lines they ought to be. This projection can give correct shapes only for very small areas and their comparative size will be wrong.
Uthosphere is the topmost crust of the Earth on which stand our continents and ocean basins. The lithosphere has a thickness between 35 to 50 km in the continental regions, but becomes thin between 6 to 12 km under the ocean beds. In the high mountain regions, its thickness is estimated at about 60 km.
Though, strictly speaking, lithosphere includes both the land mass and thg ocean floors, generally it is used to’ denote only the land surface, which occupies a little less than 30 per cent of total area of the Earth.
Name Approximate area in sq km Territories
The Sahara 9,065,000 Africa. Spreads across Algeria, Chad,Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Sudan, Tunisia, Egypt, Morocco. Embraces the Libyan Desert (1,550,000 sq km) and the Nubian Desert (260,000 sq km)
Australian Desert 1,550,000 Australia. Embraces the Great Sandy (or Warburton) (420,000 sq km), Great Victoria (325,000 sq km), Simpson (Arunta) (310,000 sq km), Gibson (220,000 sq km) and Sturt Deserts
Arabian Desert 1,300,000 Asia. Spreads across Southern Arabia, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, includes the Ar Rab’al Khali or Empty Quarter (647,500 sq km), Syrian (325,000 sq km) and An Nafud (129,500 sq km)
The Gobi 1,295,000 Asia. Embraces Mongolia and China (Inner Mongolia)
Libyan 1,165,500 Africa. Embraces Libya, SW Egypt and Sudan
Rub-al-Khali (Empty Quarter) 647,500 Southern Saudi Arabia (Asia)
Kalahari Desert 582,000 Botswana (Africa)
Chihuahuan 363,600 Texas, New Mexico (USA)
Takla Makan 362,600 Sinkiang, China
Great Sandy 338,-500 North West Australia
Great Victoria 338,500 South West Australia
Gibson 310,800 Western Australia
Namib Desert 310,000 South West Africa (Namibia)
Kara Kum 310,000 Turkmenistan, CIS
Somali Desert 260,000 Somalia (Africa)
Nubian 259,000 North East Sudan (Africa)
Syrian 259,000 North Saudi Arabia, Eastern Jordan, Southern Syria, Western Iraq (Asia)
Thar Desert 259,000 North Western India and Pakistan (Asia)
Kyzyl Kum 259,000 Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan, CIS (Asia)
Sonoran Desert 181,300 Arizona and California, USA and Mexico (North America)
Atacama Desert 181,300 Northern Chile (South America)
An Nafud 103,600 North South Arabia (Asia)
Simpson 103,600 Central Australia
Dasht-e-Kavir 77,600 Central Iran (Asia)
Dasht-e-Lut 51,800 Eastern Iran (sometimes called Iranian Desert)
Mojave Desert 38,900 Southern California (USA)
Desierto de Sechura 26,000 North West Peru (South America)
Negev 12,200 Southern Israel (Asia)
Death Valley 7,800 Eastern California, South West Nevada (USA)
Black Rock 2,600 North West Nevada (USA)
Painted Desert 320 North Arizona (USA)’
Note: Kara Kum and Kyzyl Kum together are known as the Turkestan Desert.
Name Area in sq km Name V Area in sq km
Arabia 3,250,000 Labrador 1,300,000
Southern India 2,072,000 Scandinavia 800,300
Alaska 1,500,000 Iberian Peninsula 3 584,000
Island Location Area in sq km Island Location Area in sq km
Greenland North Atlantic (Denmark) 2,175,597 Luzon West mid-Pacific (Philippines) 104,688
New Guinea Southwest Pacific (Irian Jaya, 820,033 Iceland North Atlantic (Republic) 102,999
Indonesia, west part; Mindanao West mid-Pacific (Philippines) 94,631
Papua New Guinea, east part) Novaya Zemlya Arctic Ocean (Russia) 90,650
Borneo West mid-Pacific (Indonesia, Ireland West of Great Britain (Republic,
south part; British protectorate, south part; United Kingdom,
and Malaysia, north part) 743,107 north part) 84,426
Madagascar Indian Ocean (Malagasy Republic) 587,042 Hokkaido Sea of Japan—Pacific (Japan) 78,663
Baffin North Atlantic (Canada) 476,068 Hispaniola Caribbean Sea (Dominican Republic,
Sumatra Northeast Indian Ocean (Indonesia) 473,605 east part; Haiti, west part) 76,029
Honshu Sea of Japan—Pacific (Japan) 230,316 T asmania South of Australia (Australia) 67,897
Great Britain Off coast North-west Europe Sri Lanka (Ceylon) Indian Ocean (Republic) 65,610
(England, Scodand and Wales) 229,883 Sakhalin (Karafuto) North of Japan (CIS) 63,610
Ellesmere Arctic Ocean (Canada) 212,688 Banks Arctic Ocean (Canada) 60,166
Victoria Arctic Ocean (Canada) 212,199 Devon Arctic Ocean (Canada) 54,030
Celebes West mid-Pacific (Indonesia) 189,034 Tierra del Fuego Southern tip of South America
South Island South Pacific (New Zealand) 150,461 (Argentina, east part; Chile, west part) 48,187
Java Indian Ocean (Indonesia) 126,884 Kyushu Sea of Japan—Pacific (Japan) 42,018
North Island South Pacific (New Zealand) 114,688 Melville Arctic Ocean (Canada) 41,805
Cuba Caribbean Sea (Republic) 114,525 Axel Heiberg Arctic Ocean (Canada) 40,868
N ewfoundland North Atlantic (Canada) 110,681 Southampton Hudson Bay (Canada) 40,663

Hydrosphere is the name given to all the water of the Earth in solid, liquid and gaseous forms. It thus includes the water of the atmosphere, water on the Earth’s surface (e.g. oceans, rivers, ice- sheets and ground water). Oceans, which are interconnected, cover about 70.8 percent of the surface of the Earth. Pacific Ocean, which is the largest among the oceans, sprawls over an area of about
165,760,0 sq km, an area which is more than the total combined area of all the continents.
The oceans have an average depth of 3.5 km but their depth varies from place to place. The deepest known point is the Challenger Deep, a part of the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean, which is 11.776 km deep.
The water in the oceans totals over 1,300 million cubic km, which is more than 97 percent of world’s total water. The balance of water resources are Contributed by glaciers, ice and snow, fresh water lakes, rivers and the underground water.
The ocean floor consists of three main zones, vi%, the continental shelf, the continental slope and the abyss. The continental shelves are, in fact, the submerged parts of the continents that gently slope into the oceans bordering these continents. They extend onwards to a depth of about 180 metres (600 feet) and considerably vary in width. For example, the continental shelf off north western Europe extends to about 300 kilometres, but off the west coast of North America, there is practically no continental shelf.
The true edge of the continents is, however, the continental slope which begins from the point where the continental shelf ends. The continental slope descends steeply having a depth extending to over 3.6 kilometres.
•The abyss contains large sediment covered plains below the oceans. These plains are often interspersed by lofty volcanic mountains some of which surface as islands and long broad ridges which are in some places 2 to 4 kilometres high and up to 4,000 kilometres wide. The abyss also contains yawning chasms called deep sea trenches.
Continental Shelf (Littoral) is the sea
bed bordering the continents, which is covered by shallow water up to about 100 fathoms (600 feet) beyond which is the continental slope.
Continental Slope is the region of the sea extending next to the continental shelf and having a depth up to 2,000 fathoms.
Continental Drift is a theory or hypothesis that continents have moved relative to each other across the surface of the Earth. The idea was originally put forth by Antonio Snider- Pellegrini in 1858 and developed by the German geologist Alfred Wegener from 1910. He stated that there was just one supercontinent, Pangaea which began to break, up about 200 million years ago, since then the continents have drifted to their present positions.
Salinity of the Water is effected by the extent of evaporation of surface water and the volume of fresh water added by rainfall, rivers and meeting of icebergs. Enclbsed seas in tropical areas which are subjected to rapid evaporation and denied fresh water are highly saline (e.g., Sambar Lake of Rajasthan in India and Dead Sea).
Isohaline is the line which joins, on a map, points of the sea/oceans having equal salinity.
Ocean Current is the movement of a sizeable body of water as a current for fairly long distances along a specific path. It is known as ‘drift current’ when caused by the winds and as ‘convection current’ when brought about by variations in temperature. A ‘warm current’ is the one which flows from a warm to a cold region. The current flowing from a cold to a warm region is called a ‘cold current’.
Stream refers to any body of running water that flows on or under the surface of the water.
Swamp is a portion of wet, waterlogged or flooded land.
Gulf Stream refers to the warm ocean current which starts from the Gulf of Mexico and flows along the eastern coast of North America. Influenced by the westerly winds, it crosses the Atlantic, • moves along the north-west coast of
Europe and helps to keep the British and Norwegian coastal waters warm and navigable during the winter months.
Kuro Siwo (Black Current or Japanese Current) is the warm ocean current which flows up the Asian east coast and is driven by westerly winds towards North America.
Tide is the periodic rise and fall of sea water. The rise and fall occur alternately twice a day. The rising of water is called the Flood Tide and the falling of water is termed as the Ebb Tide.
Spring Tides are caused as a result of the Moon and the Sun pulling the Earth gravitationally in the same direction. They occur twice a month around full moon and new moon.
Neap Tides are caused when the Moon and the Sun pull the Earth gravitationally in opposite directions. They occur twice a month during first and last quarters of the Moon, when the Sun, the Earth and the Moon are at right angles.
Lagoon is a shallow stretch of water which is partly or completely separated from sea by a narrow strip of land.
Reef is a ridge of submerged rock or other hard substance in sea water. It becomes visible at low tides.
Coral Reef is a ridge of coral and other organic material consolidated into limestone lying” near the sea level.
Bay is a wide curving indentation in a coastline lying between two head lands.
Atoll is a circular or horseshoe-shaped coral enclosing within it a lagoon.
Fjord is a shallow stretch of river that may be crossed on foot or in a vehicle, commonly found in Norway or Sweden.
Strait is a narrow sea passage that links two large areas of sea, for example the Strait of Gibraltar.
Isthmus is a narrow strip of land connecting two large areas of land (eg., Isthmus of Panama joining the North and South American continents).
Hinterland is the land which lies behind a seaport or seaboard and supplies the bulk of the exports and in which are distributed the bulk of the imports of that seaport or seaboard.
River is a large stream of fresh water flowing down hill within a channel to enter another river, lake or sea.
World’s Largest River is South America’s Amazon which flows into the South Adantic Ocean. It is so regarded in view of the size and the volume of water it discharges into the sea.
World’s Longest River is Nile of Egypt which flows into the Mediterranean Sea. It extends to 6,690 km.
Levee refers to the river bank formed by the accumulation of silt during flood or the embankment built by man.
Estuary is the tidal mouth of a river where the salt water of the tide meets the fresh water of the river current.
Delta is a triangular tract of land formed by the accumulation of silt at the river’s mouth near the sea. It is so called because of its resemblance to the letter A (delta) of the Greek alphabet.
World’s Largest Delta is the Sunderbans Delta which is created in the Bay of Bengal by the Ganges and the Brahmaputra in West Bengal in India and Bangladesh. It covers an area of75,000 sq km.
Meander is a curve in the course of a river which continuously swings from side to side in wide loops, as it progresses across the flat country. The term ‘meander’ is on the name of river Meander of Asia Minor.

Gorge and Canyon is a rocky-walled, steep-sided, deep, narrow valley. A gorge, relatively narrow but of considerable size bounded by steep slopes, is called canyon. The Grand Canyon of Colorado river in the USA, which has depth of 1,615 metres, is the longest canyon ,in the world.
River Source Outflow “Length (km)
Nile Tributaries of Lake Victoria, Africa Mediterranean Sea 6,690
Amazon Glacier-fed lakes, Peru Atlantic Ocean 6,296
Mississippi-Missouri-Red Rock Source of Red Rock, Montana Gulf of Mexico 6,240
Yangtze Kiang Tibetan Plateau, China China Sea 5,797
Amur-Argun Khingan Mts., China Tatar Strait 5,780
Ob Altai Mts., CIS Gulf of Ob 5,567
Yellow (Huang Ho) Eastern part of Kunlan Mts., west China Gulf of Chihli 4,667
Yenisei Tannu-Ola Mts., western Tuva, CIS Arctic Ocean 4,506
Parana Confluence of Paranaiba and Grande rivers Rio de la Plata 4,498
Irtish Altai Mts., CIS Ob River 4,438
Congo Confluence of Lualaba and Luapula rivers, Zaire Atlantic Ocean 4,371
Amur Confluence of Shilka (CIS) and Argun (Manchuria) rivers Tatar Strait 4,352
Lena Baikal Mts., CIS Arctic Ocean 4,268
Mackenzie Head of Finlay river, British Columbia, Canada Beaufort Sea (Arctic Ocean) 4,241
Niger Guinea Gulf of Guinea 4,184
Mekong Tibetan highlands South China Sea 4,023
Mississippi Lake Itasca, Minnesota Gulf of Mexico 3,779
Missouri Confluence of Jefferson,
Gallatin and Madison rivers, Montana Mississippi River 3,726
Volga Valdai plateau, CIS Caspian Sea 3,687
Madeira Confluence of Beni and Maumore rivers, Bolivia-Brazil boundary Amazon River 3,238
Purus Peruvian Andes Amazon River 3,207
San Francisco Southwest Minas Gerais, Brazil Atlantic Ocean 3,198
Yukon Junction of Lewes and Pelly rivers, Yukon Territory, Canada Bering Sea 3,185
St. Lawrence Lake Ontario Gulf of St. Lawrence 3,058
Rio Grande San Juan Mts., Colorado Gulf of Mexico 3,034
Tunguska (Lower) North of Lake Baikal, Russia Yenesei River 2,995
Brahmaputra Himalayas Ganges River 2,897
Indus Himalayas Arabian Sea 2,897
Danube Black Forest, Germany Black Sea 2,842
Euphrates Confluence of Murat Nehri
and Kara Sun rivers, Turkey Shatt-al-Arab 2,799
Darling Central part of Eastern Highlands, Australia Murray River 2,739
Zambezi 11° 21’S, 24° 22’E, Zambia Mozambique Channel 2,736
Tocantins Goias, Brazil Para River 2,699
Murray Australian Alps, New South Wales Indian Ocean 2,589
Nelson Head of Bow River, western Alberta, Canada Hudson Bay 2,575
Paraguay Mato Grosso Plateau, Brazil Parana River 2,549
Ural Southern Ural Mts., CIS Caspian Sea •> 2,533
Ganges Himalayas Bay of Bengal 2,506
Amu Darya (Oxus) Nicolas Range, Pamir Mts., CIS Aral Sea 2,414
Japura Andes, Colombia Amazon River 2,414
Salween Tibet, south of Kunlun Mts. Gulf of Martaban 2,414
Arkansas Central Colorado Mississippi River 2,348
Colorado Grand Country, Colorado Gulf of California 2,333
Dnieper Valdai Hills, CIS Black Sea 2,284
Syr Darya Tien Shan, China/Kyrgyzstan Aral Sea 2,206
Ohio-Allegheny Potter County, Pennsylvania Mississippi River 2,102
Irrawaddy Confluence of Nmai and Mali rivers, northeast Myanmar Bay of Bengal 2,092
Orange Lesotho Atlantic Ocean 2,092
Orinoco Serra Parima Mts., Venezuela Atlantic Ocean 2,062
Pilcomayo Andes Mts., Bolivia Paraguay River 1,999
Xi Jiang (Si Kiang) Eastern Yunnan Province, China China Sea 1,989
Columbia Columbia Lake, British Columbia, Canada Pacific Ocean 1,983
Don Tula, RSFSR, CIS Sea of Azov 1,968
Sungari China-North Korea boundary Amur River 1,955
Saskatchewan Canadian Rockey Mts. Lake Winnipeg 1,939
Peace Stikine Mts., British Columbia, Canada Great Slave River 1,923
Tigris Taurus Mts., Turkey Shatt-al-Arab 1,899
Rhine Confluence of Hinterrhein and
Vorderrhein rivers, Switzerland North Sea 1,320
Waterfall Location River Height in metres
Angel Venezuela Tributary of Caroni 1,000
Tugela Natal, South Africa Tugela 914
Cuquenan Venezuela Cuquenan 610
Sutherland South Island, N.Z. Arthur 580
Takkakaw British Columbia Tributary of Yoho 503
Ribbon (Yosemite) Califbmia. USA Creek flowing into Yosemite 491
Upper Yosemite California, USA Yosemite Creek, tributary of Merced 436
Gavamie Southwest France Gave de Pau 422
Vettisfoss Norway Morkedola 366
Widows’ Tears (Yosemite) California, USA Tributary of Merced 357
Staubbach Switzerland Staubbach (Lauter-brunnen Valley) 300
Middle Cascade (Yosemite) California,. USA Yosemite Creek, tributary of Merced 227
King Edward VIII Guyana Courantyne 259
Jog Falls (Gersoppa) Karnataka, India Sharavati 253
Kaieteur Guyana Potaro 251
Skykje Norway In Skykjedal (valley of Inner Hardinger Fjord) 250
Kalambo T anzania-Zambia — 219
Fariy (Mt. Rainier Park) Washington, USA Stevens Creek 213
Trummelbach Switzerland — 213
Aniene (Teverone) Italy Tiber 207
Cascata delle Marmore Italy Velino, tributary of Nera 198
Maradalsfos Norway Stream flowing into Ejkisdalsvand (lake) 196
Feather California, USA Fall River 195
Maletsunyane Lesotho Maletsunyane 192
Bridalveil (Yosemite) California, USA Yosemite Creek 189
Multnomah Oregon, USA Multnomah Creek tributary of Colombia 189
Voringsfos Norway Bjoreia 182
Nevada (Yosemite) California, USA Merced 181
Skjeggedal Norway Tysso 160
Marina Guyana Tributary of Kuribrong, tributary of Potaro 152
Tequendama Colombia Funza, tributary of Magdalena 130
Trummelbach Switzerland — 213
King George’s Cape of Good Hope, South Africa Orange 122
Illilouette California, USA Illilouette Creek, tributary of Merced 113
Victoria Zimbabwe-Zambia boundary Zambezi 108
Handol Sweden Handol Creek 105
Lower Yosemite California, USA Yosemite 98
Comet (Mt Rainier Park) Washington, USA Van Trump Creek 98
Vernal (Yosemite) California Merced 97
Virginia Northwest Territories,Canada South Nahanni, tributary of Mackenzie 96
Lower Yellowstone Wyoming, USA Yellowstone 94
WORLD New Mississippi USA Jabalpur Narmada Madhya
Alexandria Nile Egypt Orleans Pradesh
Amsterdam Amsel TheNetheriands New York Hudson USA Jamshedpur Suvamarekha Jharkhand
Antwerp Scheldt Belgium Paris Seine France Kanpur Ganga Uttar
Ankara Kizil Turkey Philadelphia Delaware USA 1 Pradesh
Baghdad Tigris Iraq Quebec St. Lawrence Canada Kota Chambal Rajasthan
Bangkok Menam Thailand Yangon Irawadi Myanmar Lucknow Gomti Uttar Pradesh
Belgrade Danube Serbia Rome Tiber Italy Ludhiana Sudej Punjab
Berlin Spree Germany Shanghai Yang-tse-Kiang China Mathura Yamuna Uttar Pradesh
Bonn Rhine Germany Tokyo Sumida Japan Nashik Godavari Maharashtra
Bristol Avon England Vienna Danube Austria Pandharpur Bhima Maharashtra
Budapest Danube Hungary Warsaw Vistula Poland Patna Ganga Bihar
Cairo Nile Egypt Washington Potomac USA Ropar Sudej Punjab
Canton Canton China Sambalpur Mahanadi Odisha
Chittagong Kamaphuli Bangladesh INDIA Srinagar Jhelum Jammu and
Chungking Yang-tse-Kiang China Agra Yamuna Uttar Pradesh Kashmir
Cologne Rhine Germany Ahmedabad Sabarmati Gujarat Surat Tapti Gujarat
Glasgow Clyde Scotland Allahabad Ganga and Tiruchirappalli Cauvery Tamil Nadu
Hull Humber England Yamuna Uttar Pradesh Ujjain Shipra Madhya
Hamburg Elbe Germany Ayodhya Saryu Uttar Pradesh Pradesh
Karachi Indus Pakistan Badrinath Alaknanda Uttarakhand Varanasi Ganga Uttar Pradesh
Khartoum Blue & White Sudan Kolkata Hooghly West Bengal Vijayawada Krishna Andhra
Nile Cuttack Mahanadi Odisha Pradesh
Lahore . Ravi Pakistan Delhi Yamuna Delhi
Lisbon Tagus Portugal Dibrugarh Brahmaputra Assam RIVERS FLOWING
Liverpool Mersey England Ferozepur Sudej Punjab INTO LAKES
London Thames England Guwahati Brahmaputra Assam River Lake Country
Montreal Ottawa Canada Hardwar Ganga Uttarakhand Volga Caspian Sea CIS
Moscow Moskva Russia Hyderabad Musi Andhra Ural Caspian Sea CIS
Nanking Yang-tse-Kiang Cffina Pradesh Jordan Dead Sea West Asia

Vice Chairman’s Message
Mr. Abhishek Singhanaia
Co-founder and Managing Director JK Technosoft
JK Business School (JKBS) was established to impart academic excellence by providing a conducive environment for the overall personality development of youth. Spanning over a decade, the Institute is covering many a milestone year after year, incorporating all modern mechanisms of management, research and application. Within this span of time, it has emerged as one of the leading business schools of India. JKBS is making every effort to nurture young men & women with global mindset embedded in Indian roots.
We have a perfect blend of academics and dynamic environment to motivate everyone – the management, faculty and students to deliver their best books for gate preparation. We have a very’competent and dedicated core faculty team. We encourage students to utilize our high standard of teaching-learning services. Our objective is to create a class of qualified, innovative and dynamic professionals for the management sector, for self-employment and for academic & research institutions of socio¬economic importance.
Personality development is one of the major hallmarks of the Institute. Students are groomed through various personality enhancement programs. It is our strong belief that the extensive corporate interaction at JKBS is instrumental in shaping our students’ managerial potential through guest lectures, industry visits, networking events as well as hands-on experience.

The journey towards excellence always begins with self-discovery.
JK Business School (JKBS) has been accepted by the Industry as an active and vibrant business education institution which is closely aligned with the corporate practices.
JKBS prepares students for the managerial leadership that will be expected of them in the coming years. In order to be able to lead, they should be able to inspire, to be innovative and creative.
The power of the future lies in the power of mind. That is why education systems around the world are geared towards development of the power of the young mind through an enterprise approach that focuses on the evolution of ethical management leaders.
Our educational programs are an exhaustive series of stimulating workshops, lively seminars, resolute team work, proactive task management; and focused hands-on exposure to corporate practices, where a student develops an aptitude to think both logically and laterally, and also act rationally. The recent global recession has more powerfully than ever before, differentiated business leaders from mere business owners. Conscious effort is made to integrate the employability skills of the students with the academic assignments. This makes JKBS students highly sought-after by industries throughout India and abroad.

Academic Collaboration between JK Business School and 11tiiilftii llli mMmamtMBUm
California State University, Moneterey Bay, USA
About California State University:
The California State University, USA (CSU) adheres to a public University System, comprising of 23 campuses and eight off-shore campus centres enrolling 437,000 students with 44,000 faculty members and staff. CSU is the largest University System in United States.
California State University-Monterey Bay is a public institution that was founded in 1994. It has a total undergraduate enrollment of 5,308, its setting is suburban with the campus size of 1,387 acres. It utilizes a semester-based academic calendar.
JKBS – CSUMB Academic Collaboration:
JKBS and CSUMB have agreed to build a long term mutually beneficial relationship to promote academic interests of both institutions. The collaboration covers student and faculty exchange, joint research and other academic activities. JKBS sends selected meritorious PGDM students to California State University for one full term i.e. from June to August. The students pay for their air travel while all other incidental charges, and cost of study in USA is paid under the “Govind Hari Singhania Global Leadership Award”. During their study, CSUMB offers courses that enrich students’ capabilities. The learning is imparted in and out of the classrooms which includes visits to industries in and around the state of California.
Govind Hari Singhania Global Leadership Award:
Through a rigorous selection procedure, meritorious students of PGDM program are selected for one full term study tour in California State University, Monterey Bay, U.S.A. under the collaboration between JKBS and California State University, U.S.A.
The students will have opportunity to:
Study along with management students from across the world.
• Learn best teaching and learning-processes by prominent professors from across the globe.
• Learn management systems and best-practices by visiting and interacting with managers in various firms in US. Learn to adapt in a multi-cultural environment.
• Individual holistic development.
During the term (June to August), the students study Global Marketing, Supply Chain Management, Agribusiness, Venture Formation/Finance, International Comparative Management apart from extra curricular activities & are awarded a certificate from the California State University, USA.

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